New PDF release: BRITISH STANDARD 6349-7: 1991, Code of practice for maritime
By British Standard
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Extra resources for BRITISH STANDARD 6349-7: 1991, Code of practice for maritime structures, Part 7: Guide to the design and construction of breakwaters
Hydraulic model tests are necessary for severely overtopped or submerged breakwaters and the results of these can show that larger armour is required at the crest. The crest should be of sufficient width to accommodate at least three crest armour units where the armour is continued over the crest. Crest stability, particularly for some concrete units, can be less than the stability of the main face armour due to the smaller effect of gravitational forces and less interlock. On the rear face continuous downrush forces may also result in greater instability.
Alternatively the difference in slope can be accommodated by placing additional core material to form one or more berms, or varying the thickness of the underlayer as shown in Figure 6(a) and Figure 6(f). Many variations are possible and the best choice will be influenced by site conditions, available materials and construction plant. © BSI 04-1999 BS 6349-7:1991 Figure 5 — Elements and functions of typical rubble mound breakwaters © BSI 04-1999 23 BS 6349-7:1991 Figure 6 — Examples of rubble mound breakwaters with underlayers 24 © BSI 04-1999 BS 6349-7:1991 Figure 6 — Examples of rubble mound breakwaters with underlayers (continued) © BSI 04-1999 25 BS 6349-7:1991 Figure 6 — Examples of rubble mound breakwaters with underlayers (concluded) 26 © BSI 04-1999 BS 6349-7:1991 Figure 7 — Examples of rubble mound breakwaters without underlayers It is important, for economy, to design the cross section so that the greatest range of rock products arising from quarrying operations can be used.
Further information on testing and assessment of strength is given by Silva , Grimaldi and Fontana  and Burcharth . It has been suggested that the maximum size of concrete armour units be limited to the values given in Table 6. Examples can be found of the successful use of larger units but, in the present state of knowledge, the degree of caution implied by the limits given appears justified. 1 Introduction The relationship between wave height and the weight of rock armour in rubble mound breakwaters has been the subject of a large number of empirical or semi-empirical formulae compiled over many years.
BRITISH STANDARD 6349-7: 1991, Code of practice for maritime structures, Part 7: Guide to the design and construction of breakwaters by British Standard