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By Stewart M. Brooks
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Extra resources for Basic Facts of Body Water and Ions
An excess of the ion ( hypermagnesemia) can occur when magnesium compounds are administered in the presence of renal failure. The cardinal symptoms include circulatory collapse and respiratory depression. Phosphate Because phosphate ( HP0 4 =) is an important and integral ion of the intracellular compartment and closely allied to calcium, potassium and magnesium, many now believe that the ion should be present in solutions used to replace lost fluids. Further, in the "repair" of hypokalemia of long standing, dipotassium phosphate (K2HP0 4 ) would appear to be the electrolyte of choice.
These solutions are contraindicated in the presence of normal, elevated or slightly decreased plasma electrolyte. Ringer's solution Ringer's solution contains sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride in amounts approximating those in the extracellular compartment. The solution is indicated following drastically diminished water intake and following increased excretion of water and electrolytes in vomiting, diarrhea, fistula, drainage, and the like. The dose is based on age, weight and clinical condition of the patient.
In cases where sodium bicarbonate does not produce the desired results, an agent called tromethamine ( THAM) is used. 3M) solution. 14 percent ammonium chloride in water is the standard remedy to correct severe states of alkalosis arising from gastrointestinal losses and certain respiratory disturbances, such as emphysema. The mechanism of action is that NH 4 + is metabolized in the liver to urea and H + ions. Throughout the infusion period the patient must be kept under constant watch and a "C02 combining power" test must be made of the patient's serum before each infusion.
Basic Facts of Body Water and Ions by Stewart M. Brooks