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Methods Materials

By Joe Kelly & Ilya

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Reducing the size and power of devices generally requires new operating principles as evidenced by tracing the evolution of electronic components from the vacuum tube to the nanoscale device. ’’ For example, electromagnetic (EM) fields still control charged particles even for nanodevices. 1 VACUUM TUBE Some of the smallest vacuum tubes, the acorn tubes, have sizes on the order of several cubic centimeters. 30), they have an anode, cathode, and grid. The filament ‘‘boils off’’ electrons into a region of the tube having an electric field.

We must add energy to move an electron closer to the left-hand electrode (since it is negatively charged and naturally repels electrons). This means that all electrons have higher energy near the left-hand electrode and lower energy near the right-hand electrode. 21, all of the electrons have higher energy near the lefthand electrode. The term ‘‘all electrons’’ refers to conduction and valence band electrons. 20 The states within an energy kT of the bottom of the conduction band or the top of the valence band form the levels in the band-edge diagram.

The delta doped layer outside the channel releases electrons to the channel. 26 Solid State and Quantum Theory for Optoelectronics current from flowing between the gate and the channel. Although not shown, the band edge position with respect to the Fermi level depends on the horizontal position within the channel. The field effect device, although perhaps conceptually simpler than the BJT, requires considerable effort to control the surface charges that otherwise affect the channel field and randomly shift the band edge.

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Ballast by Joe Kelly & Ilya

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