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By M. B. A. Oldstone (auth.), Michael B. A. Oldstone M.D. (eds.)
M. B. A. OLDSTONE Viruses are as a rule studied both simply because they reason major human, animal or plant sickness or for his or her software as fabrics to probe a uncomplicated phenomenon in biology, chemistry, genetics or molecular biology. Arenaviruses are surprisingly fascinating in that they occupy either one of those different types. Arenaviruses reason serious human ailments recognized basically because the hemor rhagic fevers happening in South and Latin the US (Bolivia: Machupo virus and Argentina: Junin virus) and in Africa (Lassa virus). simply because such viruses produce profound incapacity and should kill the individuals they infect, they're a resource of monetary worry within the nations the place they're conventional. extra, they supply new difficulties for future health care body of workers due to the narrowing of the realm as viewers from many nations more and more commute to and from those endemic components. additionally, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) can infect people around the globe, even if the ailment is pretty much much less disabling than these elicited through different arenaviruses. but LCMV is probably going of larger quandary to non-arena-virologists and experimentalists utilizing tissue tradition or animals, i. e. , employees in molecular biology, melanoma examine, virology, immunobiology, and so on. , simply because basic showing cultured cells or tissues and animals used for study can be repeatedly contaminated with LCMV with out manifesting medical affliction or cytopathology and transmit that an infection to laboratory staff (reviewed OLDSTONE and PETERS 1978). for instance, HINMAN et al.
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Extra info for Arenaviruses: Biology and Immunotherapy
With the appearance of virus-specific IgM antibodies, antigen can no longer be detected in the antigen-capture test used, but in many cases viral infectivity remains in the same or actually increases in titer. When sera from infected monkeys are mixed with anti-IgM antisera, viral infectivity is neutralized (JAHRLING, unpublished observations), although addition of protein Abearing staphylococci and subsequent centrifugation (JAHRLING et aL 1978) has no effect. Presumably these virus-IgM complexes fail to be effectively removed from the circulation for the same reasons that IgM-coated erythrocytes are only transiently cleared (FRANK et aL 1977).
Lysis of syngeneic virus-infected target cells by spleen cell suspensions can be detected somewhat sooner, as early as day 6 (KENYON and PETERS 1986). Lytic activity of effector spleen cells was shown to be due to antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Killing was blocked by aggregated human gamma globulin, remained after treatment with a T-cell specific monoclonal antibody plus complement, and was diminished by maneuvers that enriched spleen cell suspensions for T -lymphocytes. When we attempted to reconstruct the system with normal guinea pig spleen cells and exogenous antibody, we encountered only minimal cytotoxicity.
C. c. 610g,o PFU Lassa virus (strain Josiah). Immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) titers were determined with acetone-fixed Vero cells infected with Lassa or Mopeia virus and a conjugate against monkey total immunoglobulins. Neutralizing antibody concentrations were quantitated as log,o neutralization indexes (LNl) against Mopeia or Lassa (Josiah) virus (see Fig. 1 legend) with the lethal Josiah strain of Lassa virus do not develop cytotoxic spleen cells, perhaps another expression of the immunosuppression observed in the arena viral HF (Sect.
Arenaviruses: Biology and Immunotherapy by M. B. A. Oldstone (auth.), Michael B. A. Oldstone M.D. (eds.)