Advances in Natural Gas Technology - download pdf or read online


By H. Al-Megren

ISBN-10: 9535105078

ISBN-13: 9789535105077

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The frac fluid is pressurized until the breakdown pressure of the formation is exceeded and the rock cracks open. The initial part of the frac is just water, called the pad. It is followed by water mixed with sand pumped in as a proppant, to keep the fractures open after pressure is released. A flow meter on the blender measures the volume of fluid pumped downhole, and a densometer measures the amount of sand in the fluid. Engineers watch the wellhead, annulus and bottomhole pressures, pump rate, fluid density and material parameters throughout the frac.

It involves a lot of material, including gravel, water, sand and chemicals for the pad and the hydraulic fracturing operations, along with many trucks to deliver all this to the well site. Installing the well creates noise, mud and dust, and requires a large crew of hard-working people, who live at the site for several days to weeks at a time. The drilling operations run 24/7, and create a neighborhood nuisance with their work lights, constant racket, smelly exhaust and endless activity. Having one of these sites near a home, school or business can be distracting, inconvenient, annoying, and disruptive.

2009). The latter consists of pure thermogenic gases (Figure 4b). , 1988) to both the hydrate-bound gases and the gas bubbles, it appears that they consist of a mixture of thermogenic and microbial gases (Figure 4a) as we came up with a concave down curve instead of a straight line as for pure thermogenic gases. Amongst all natural-gas fields studied by Hoşgörmez and Yalçin (2005), three fields, Tekirdag, Karacali and Hayrabolu, contain a mixture of thermogenic and microbial methane like the gas bubbles (Figure 4b).

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Advances in Natural Gas Technology by H. Al-Megren

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