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Nonfiction 6

By K. Winkler, W. Murphy

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Spark Plasma Sintering of Ultrafine WC Powders: A Combined Kinetic and Microstructural Study 41 Figure 19. 1. Size effect on the sintering kinetics Sintering of compounds (both ionic and covalent) occurs by the slowest species diffusing through the fastest route to establish the chemical equilibrium associated with the stoichiometry of the compound. In WC, carbon is generally considered to be more mobile than W. 985) with C atoms occupying the interior positions in the unit cell. Yet, carbon cannot be equated to a regular interstitial atom in WC.

Grain size evaluation was performed using the FE SEM images (15000 X magnification) of the etched samples with the aid of an image analysis software (Image ProPlus). Approximately 150-200 grains from three different locations of a sample were randomly selected for the measurements. The boundaries were delineated either manually or auto segmented and the average diameter (average value of the diameters measured at 2 intervals and passing through the centroid of the selected grain) of the grains was calculated.

However, no clear evidence exists for the actual generation of plasma or any surface melting phenomenon in the SPS process although the hypothesis has been widely debated [Tokita M, 1997, Hulbert D M et al, 2008, Hulbert D M et al, 2009]. Since the last decade, a number of reports on SPS of n-WC have consistently come up in journals and scientific magazines. Not only have the compacts been manufactured to complete density, but the grain size could also be limited to the ultra-fine size (200-400 nm).

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Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation in Porous Rocks [short article] by K. Winkler, W. Murphy

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